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Science Knowledge about COVID-19

March 18, 2020

What is coronavirus?
The coronavirus was first separated from chickens in 1937, and the first human coronavirus was separated in 1965. Because the shape of the coronavirus was observed to look like a crown under the electron microscope, it was named coronavirus.
How does the novel coronavirus make humans sick?
Coronavirus does not have an independent body. It needs to invade a living cell and then reproduces and releases more progeny virion by taking advantage of energies from living cell -coding the function of the substance and molecule. Unlike bacteria that can diffuse poison, it never diffuses poison, but makes use of the host cell to reproduce itself and exhausts the energies and substances of the host cell, then releases offspring from the host cell that leads to the rupture of the membrane and then causes: dyspnea, hypoglycemia, etc. When we fight against the virus with the immune system, there will appear to be a lot of inflammatory cytokines produced in the process of antagonism, which does harm to the human organ system.

How does coronavirus catch infect us?
The receptor of the coronavirus is ACE-2 and attaches to our respiratory tract, eyes, mouth mucosa. The infection of the nose and respiratory tract may be caused by contact with a patient's coughing or sneezing of droplets, or by contact with infected objects contaminated by the virus. thus being spread by hands, and by unconsciously rubbing eyes or nostrils and ingesting food. Therefore, it is advisable to wear masks to prevent infection and wash hands frequently. At the same time, the manner of coughing should be paid attention to. When coughing, it is advisable to use paper towels or one’s elbows to prevent spray.

Here are seven differences between the novel coronavirus and influenza virus.
Although the novel coronavirus and influenza virus both cause respiratory diseases, there are some differences as listed below:
First, the infection speed is different. COVID-19 spreads more slowly than influenza, but its median incubation period takes a longer time.
Second, patients spread the virus during different periods. Influenza spread occurs mainly within three to five days after the symptoms appear, and may occur before the symptoms appear. By contrast, although in some cases, COVID-2019 can be spread within 24 to 48 hours before the symptoms appear, this is currently not the main contributor.
Third, the infectivity is different. Based on the assessment of the basic reproduction number, COVID-19 is more contagious than influenza.  One patient can infect 2 to 2.5 people on average. However, the assessment of the infectivity of the two viruses depends on the specific environment and time.
Fourth, the proportion of severely sick patients is different. The latest data indicates that 80 percent of patients infected by the novel coronavirus are mild or asymptomatic, 15 percent are severe and 5 percent are critically severe. The proportion of patients severely and very severely infected is higher than that of influenza.
Fifth, there are some differences among susceptible patients. The primary groups susceptible to influenza include: children, pregnant women, the elderly, and people with other chronic diseases and immune system inefficiency. In terms of COVID-19, the current research shows that older people and other people with underlying diseases are at a higher risk for severe infection.
Sixth, the fatality rate is different. Although it will take some time to determine the fatality rate of COVID-19, the current data indicates that the fatality rate of COVID-19 ranges from 3% to 4%, while seasonal influenza is usually well below 0.1%.
Seventh, different medical interventions are carried out for COVID-19 and influenza. Antiviral drugs and vaccines for influenza are available, but no new vaccines or treatments are licensed for COVID-19.

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